For me, a solid working user experience process is the cornerstone of how I approach product design. To outline my steps, I use the framework of Design Thinking, as innovated by UX pioneers like Tim Brown and NN/g.
Though there are many useful methods and solutions that I have been trained in, I use the Jared Spool example that a designer shouldn't use one rigid process to solve their design decisions. Instead, it's encouraged to approach it like a tool belt, loading it up to arm me for the specific and unique problems of the project at hand.
Below are examples of some of the methods I often use, The italics show methods that I have provided examples below.
Personas Card Sorting
Low Fidelity Wireframes
Mid Fidelity Wireframes
High Fidelity Visual/UI Designs